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Artroscopia de rodilla: menisectoma artroscpica - Medical Animation
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Artroscopia de rodilla: menisectoma artroscpica - Medical Animation
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: La artroscopia de rodilla se utiliza para el diagnstico y tratamiento de diferentes trastornos y lesiones de la rodilla. Entre los ms comunes est el tratamiento del desgarro de meniscos. En condiciones normales, los meniscos, trozos de cartlago en forma de letra C que se encuentran entre el fmur y la tibia, proporcionan amortizacin y estabilidad a la articulacin de la rodilla. Las lesiones o la artritis pueden desgarrar los meniscos lo cual causa dolor en la rodilla, inflamacin y disminucin del rango de movimiento. La artroscopia de rodilla a menudo se realiza para extirpar la parte daada del menisco. Al llegar al hospital para someterse al procedimiento, se le colocar una va endovenosa y es posible que se administre algn sedante para ayudarle a relajarse. El procedimiento se puede realizar con anestesia raqudea que lo mantendr adormecido de la cintura para abajo, anestesia local que mantendr adormecida el rea de la rodilla o con menor frecuencia, anestesia general que lo mantendr inconsciente durante todo el tiempo que dure el procedimiento. Una meniscectoma artroscpica por lo general lleva entre 45 y 90 minutos. El cirujano acceder a la articulacin de la rodilla utilizando instrumentos cortantes denominados trcares con los que realizar dos o tres orificios pequeos o puertos. El cirujano inyectar una solucin estril en la articulacin para separar las superficies y permitir una mejor visualizacin de las estructuras internas de la articulacin. A continuacin, el cirujano insertar el artroscopio y otros instrumentos a travs de los diferentes puertos. Las imgenes de la cmara del artroscopio se aumentan y se proyectan en un monitor. El cirujano examinar detenidamente el interior de la articulacin de la rodilla, localizar el dao, extirpar cualquier parte suelta o gravemente lesionada y utilizar un rasurador para alisar cualquier reborde mellado. Si bien es posible reparar los meniscos con pequeas suturas, en la mayora de los casos se debe extirpar la parte daada. Al finalizar el procedimiento, el cirujano examinar nuevamente toda la zona de la rodilla a fin de detectar reas que presenten hemorragias u otros daos, retirar el artroscopio y el resto de los instrumentos y cerrar cada una de las incisiones en forma de ojo de cerradura con unas pocas suturas. Despus de la ciruga, se lo trasladar al rea de recuperacin para monitorearlo y de ser necesario se le administrarn calmantes para el dolor. La mayora de los pacientes son dados de alta de la unidad de ciruga ambulatoria a las pocas horas del procedimiento.

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